You have already been informed about the implementation of the new Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), which is the new standard since September 2017. As your mobility partner, we had explained the new legal regulations and we will continue to accompanying you on further implementations of the new type approval regulations. Additionally, we will support you in adjusting your fleet to the new circumstances.
Evaporative Emission (EVAP)
We would like to inform you about the most relevant regulations becoming effective in 2019 & 2020. We explain the connection between the upcoming test procedures, the stages of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test and the associated Euro 6 standards.
With the implementation of Euro 6d Temp (temporary until the end of 2020), WLTP values and new thresholds for the real driving test (RDE) on the road became mandatory. The nitrogen oxide value (NOX) measured in the RDE test may not exceed 2.1 times the measured threshold value under WLTP. The value for particle emissions (PN) has already to fulfil the conformity factor of 1.0 with a measuring tolerance of 0.5. Therefore, the value measured under real-driving conditions is a maximum of 1.5 times higher than the value measured under WLTP. With the continuous adaption of RDE regulations, the Euro 6d standard, which comes into effect in 2020 has a reduced conformity factor for NOX of 1.0 with a measuring tolerance of 0.43. Therefore, the NOX value measured under real-driving conditions is a maximum of 1.43 times higher than the value measured under WLTP.
In addition to the WLTP test procedure for new vehicles, the EU Commission has also decided to extend the verification of vehicles being in service for a period of 0.5 to 5 years1) (starts 01.01.2019)2). With the implementation of this extended/revised ISC (In Service Conformity) regulations, the nomination of the EURO norms is also been amended (e.g. Euro 6d-TEMP-ISC).
With the amendment of WLTP, the EU Commission has confirmed the introduction of the updated test procedure for evaporative emissions valid from 01.09.2019. This is mandatory to all new type-approvals and first registrations of vehicles from that date. The nomination of the EURO norms therefore is: “Euro 6d-TEMP-EVAP-ISC”3).
Vehicles with petrol engines have a pressure equalization line on the petrol tank, which prevents negative pressure from forming in the tank. By inflowing air, the contraction of the tank while driving is avoided. In case the fuel is heated, the pressure equalization line prevents the tank from bursting.
The petrol vapours4) are collected and temporarily stored in an activated carbon filter when the vehicle is stationary. During driving, the fuel is supplied to the combustion. This ensures that the escape of fuel will be mostly avoided.
Within the EVAP emissions test, hydrocarbon emissions (HC) emissions that occur during driving and parking (hot soaks) are considered. The evaporation-test cycle to check the hydrocarbon emissions (HC) of vehicles with petrol engines takes place in a sealed housing for evaporative determination (SHED). The hydrocarbon emissions caused by temperature fluctuations (during the course of the day), parking (hot soaks) and driving in the city are recorded. In addition to evaporative emissions, the ageing of the activated carbon filter and the permeability of the fuel storage system are also considered. In order to carry out the test it is necessary that the test vehicle has already completed at least a distance of 3.000 km and that there has been no excessive flushing/loading of the activated carbon filter.
The cycle-test includes the “Drive Test” (WLTC-Phases Low-Medium-High-Medium), the measurement of hot soak losses and tank respiratory losses although tests using the previous NEDC cycle and the new test procedure remain valid. With the amendment of RDE, the EU Commission has adapted the evaporation test process to the WLTP as described before and updated the associated emission standards accordingly. The previous maximum amount of evaporative emissions from ≤2g HC was retained. Previously, it could be emitted within 24 hours, but according to the new procedure, this emission quantity should not be exceeded over 48 hours.
The ”EURO 6 DG" emissions standard, mandatory from 01.09.2019, includes the requirements for the dynamometer test, the RDE test (NOX [CF5)=1+margin6)]; PN [CF=1+margin7)]) and the revised test procedure for evaporative emissions ( ≤2g HC within 48h) to receive the type approval. Even though the evaporative emissions occur only from Petrol engines the same approval characters are also effective for Diesel engines but Diesel engines do not need to run the EVAP.-test procedure.
1) vehicles with min. 15.000 km and 6 month registration period (max. 100.000 km and 5 years)
2) 01.01.2019 all vehicles [N1 II, III - LCV]
3) Verordnung (EU) 2017/1221
4) Volatile hydrocarbons (HC) – These do not occur at Diesel engines!
5) Conformity Factor
6) Margin = 0,43 -> in total 1,43
7) Margin = 0,50 -> in total 1,50
Transition from NEDC to WLTP
The NEDC is on the way out, and WLTP is taking its place. From September 2017 many countries will replace existing test procedures for determining fuel consumption and emissions successively with the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP).
The name of this new test procedure for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles may seem a bit of a mouthful at first, but it offers a whole series of tangible benefits. Not only do its standardised driving profiles and measuring procedures allow better comparisons, the WLTP test structure is also designed to depict consumption and emission values in a considerably more realistic way.
In November 2007 experts from the European Union, Japan and India began to develop the WLTP according to UNECE guidelines (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). They used driving data collected around the world as their basis. Introduction will take place incrementally from September 2017 in the EU-28 countries, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Turkey, Israel, in modified form in Japan, and for exhaust emissions in China. India and South Korea will also implement the WLTP at a later stage.
WLTP versus NEDC – A comparison
What are the advantages of WLTP over earlier test procedures? Central improvements in the new test cycle can be illustrated by comparing it to the NEDC, for example, which has been applied in the EU since 1997. Both methods involve placing the vehicle on a dynamometer in laboratory conditions – but the boundary conditions and specifications for the WLTP are stricter.
NEDC WLTP Starting temp. cold
cold Duration 1.180 sec. 1.800 sec. Idle time 25 % 13 % Distance 10.966 m 23.274 m Phases 2 phases: Urban and long-distancetrip Up to 4 phases: „Low“, „Medium“,
„High“ and „Extra-High“
Speed mean: 34 km/h –
maximum: 120 km/h
mean: 47 km/h –
maximum: 131 km/h
Acceleration mean: 0,50 m/s2 –
maximum: 1,04 m/s2
mean: 0,39 m/s2 –
maximum: 1,58 m/s2
Influence of extra features
Currently not included Special equipment is included (weight, aerodynamics)
As part of the WLTP, the driving pattern has a higher average speed and a higher top speed.
The WLTP involves considerably more acceleration and braking processes. Travel at constant speed as found in the NEDC takes place for only a few seconds.
- Vehicle equipment
Unlike the NEDC, the WLTP also includes special and additional equipment that can affect consumption and emissions; a vehicle’s CO2 value must be displayed to the customer as he or she fixes a configuration. Special equipment such as air conditioning and auxiliary heating remain switched off in both test procedures, but they could affect the WLTP result due to their weight.
A closer look at the WLTP – The most important details
The WLTP was developed with the intention of recording consumption and emission values as realistically as possible. The result is a driving cycle that lasts around 30 minutes and is intended to produce representative results by including driving data from various different countries and relating to everything from acceleration behaviour to stationary periods.
Practice: The cycle phases
Depending on their power-to-weight ratio class, vehicles run through various cycle phases while on the test rig. They are characterized by parameters such as average speed, distance or duration.
WLTP cycle phases in detail
Low Medium High Extra-High Distance ca. 3 km ca. 5 km ca. 7 km ca. 7,7 km Duration 156 sec. 433 sec. 455 sec. 323 sec. Idel Time
26 % 11,1 % 6,8 % 2,2 % Top Speed 56,5 km/h 76,6 km/h 97,4 km/h 131,3 km/h Average Speed 25,7 km/h 44,5 km/h 60,8 km/h 94,0 km/h
WLTP – The most important innovations
The new test cycle of the reproducible dynamometer test is longer and more dynamic, and contains higher velocities. Moreover, WLTP takes the weight and aerodynamics of optional equipment, the rims and the tyre rolling resistance into account. In future, vehicles will therefore have individual, equipment related consumption and emission values. As such, you as a customer will have the chance to influence the CO2 value of the car. Due to the changed test cycle, WLTP values can be higher than under NEDC.
Indication of NEDC values
Until the end of 2020, the certificate of conformity (CoC) will state both the NEDC and the WLTP CO2 values for all WLTP registered vehicles. In order to provide comparability of the vehicles specific CO2 values, these NEDC values will be calculated in general in correlation with the WLTP values measured using a method developed by the EU. These values are named correlated NEDC values. Due to two different test procedures (NEDC and WLTP), the correlated NEDC value can differ slightly from the measured NEDC value based on the current test cycle, especially when considering the optional equipment, weight and aerodynamics.
WLTP Implementation Timeline
The new WLTP will be introduced incrementally in the European Union. Passenger cars and light commercial vehicles are subject to different deadlines.
The central idea of the new test procedure that was implemented on 1 September 2017 – in Europe and other applicable countries – is to record accurate and realistic values for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Pursuant to the type approval of newly developed cars and light commercial vehicles in the category N1, class I, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions will be measured according to WLTP during a 30 minute driving cycle. The values are therefore more representative and internationally comparable. The first cars – like the up! GTI – have already been type approved according to WLTP. In addition to the cars that have already been registered based on NEDC, the number of WLTP type approved models will increase successively in the transition period up to 1 September 2018.
All newly registered passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in the category N1, class I, must be WLTP type approved. Furthermore, manufactures of light commercial vehicles must type approve newly developed vehicles according to WLTP for the category N1, classes II and III, as well as for vehicles of category N2.
Manufacturers of light commercial vehicles are obliged to indicating the consumption and emission values according to WLTP for all vehicles of the category N1, classes II and III, as well as of the category N2.
Implementation at national level
Next to the European WLTP regulation for type approval of different vehicle classes, there is also the European customer information directive regarding the specification of values in showrooms, configurators and vehicle labelling. It is important to know that the directive has to be implemented through the respective national legislation. Some countries levy taxes on CO2 and envisage concrete regulations on labelling, while other countries apply just one or the other. When modifying fleet policies, it is essential to consider this diversity and obtain information on the relevant national regulations from the authorities and associations in question. Neither the EU nor the manufacturers can make a general statement on this matter.
Differences in taxation
The WLTP will be introduced in the EU-28 countries, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, as well as in Turkey and Israel, which follow EU regulations. However, as taxation is constituted and enacted on a national level, different timelines and procedures may exist for each member state. Several European countries, such as Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for example, have already provided first indications. As of September 2017, it is not clear how the WLTP will affect the respective national legislation in monetary terms. The general rule is, however, that vehicles that are already registered will not be subject to tax penalties due to the WLTP transition. The determining factors for taxation and the specification of consumption values are the applied test procedure and the date of registration. It is expected that vehicles with type approval under NEDC will be taxed according to the NEDC (in the interest of vested rights).
Specification of WLTP values
WLTP type approval for new models has been stipulated by the European Commission for all new models in the EU28 since September 2017. The date when WLTP values have to be labelled as customer information is within the responsibility of each member state and has not yet been conclusively regulated by law. The labelling of WLTP values is mandatory only for the Certificate of Conformity (CoC), which can also be called the EU Certificate of Conformity.
As both the NEDC and WLTP values will be indicated in the CoC until the end of 2020, a comparison between WLTP and NEDC is possible in principle. However, it would not yield any workable results as both values are determined by different test procedures.
According to EU commission regulations, WLTP consumption values must be indicated consistently as customer information from 1 January 2019. In the configurators, the Volkswagen Group indicates both sets of values for all new model types approved under WLTP – within the legal limitations of the member states – in order to provide transparency at an early stage to the customer.
Fleet Impacts through WLTP
The Introduction of the WLTP may result in several changes for fleet customers. We have collected relevant fleet questions and answers below.
In which countries will the WLTP be introduced?
The WLTP will be introduced in the EU-28 countries, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein as well as Turkey and Israel as countries that follow EU regulations. Outside of Europe, Japan will introduce the WLTP in modified form and China will introduce it for emissions. In addition, India and South Korea plan to introduce WLTP at a later stage. The new test procedure will account for conventional combustion engines as well as hybrid and electric vehicles.
What kind of tax implications will the WLTP have for my fleet?
In tax terms, nothing will change for vehicles that have already been registered. The deciding factor for taxation and the specification of consumption values for the vehicle is the test procedure applied on the date of registration. It is expected that vehicles with type approval under NEDC will be taxed according to the NEDC (in the interest of vested rights). The modulation of CO2 taxation lies within the responsibilities of each EU member state and is therefore regulated by national law. As the NEDC is the deciding factor in taxation until at least August 31, 2018 or until national legislation has been adapted, we do not currently see any direct changes to vehicle taxation.
However, as the WLTP will demonstrate higher CO2 values than the NEDC due to more realistic test conditions, an increase in vehicle tax can be assumed if current national taxation laws remained unchanged.
Differences in taxation
The WLTP will be introduced in the EU-28 countries, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, as well as in Turkey and Israel, which follow EU regulations. However, as taxation is constituted and enacted on a national level, different timelines and procedures may exist for each member state. Several European countries, such as Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for example, have already provided first indications.
As of September 2017, it is not clear how the WLTP will affect the respective national legislation in monetary terms. The general rule is, however, that vehicles that are already registered will not be subject to tax penalties due to the WLTP transition. The determining factors for taxation and the specification of consumption values are the applied test procedure and the date of registration. It is expected that vehicles with type approval under NEDC will be taxed according to the NEDC (in the interest of vested rights).
Specification of WLTP values
Even though, WLTP type approval has been mandated by the European Commission for all new models and engines since September 2017, the concrete labelling of WLTP values has not been scheduled as yet. Initially, the labelling of WLTP values is mandatory only for the Certificate of Conformity (CoC). It specifies that the vehicle corresponds to international standards to facilitate the registration process.
As both NEDC and WLTP values will be provided in the CoC until the end of 2020, a comparison between WLTP and NEDC is possible in principle, but it would yield any results as both values are determined by different test procedures.
The WLTP consumption values displayed for customer information in showrooms, configurators, the CO2 energy efficiency label and the vehicle tax need to be implemented consistently by January 1, 2019 as stipulated by the EU Commission. Until then the NEDC specifications remain binding until national legislation is modified. WLTP values can be provided voluntarily as additional information until then.
The Volkswagen Group, for example, already displays both sets of values for all new model types approved under WLTP in order to inform customers at an early stage.
To what extent will the WLTP influence my vehicle configuration?
So far the NEDC has been decisive when determining consumption and CO2 values as well as vehicles ranges. In the new WLTP test procedure, measurements are performed while taking into account the equipment weight, vehicle aerodynamics, rims and tyre roll resistance and engine-gear box combination. That is why vehicles will feature individual emission and consumption figures. As a result, the consumer will be able to influence both the price and the CO2 emissions of the configured vehicle in future.
Test results will be higher after the WLTP procedure. What does that mean?
The general rule is: individual customer consumption is independent from the test cycle. The aim of the test procedure is to ensure by means of a standardised and reproducible process that different vehicle models and manufacturers can be compared. In reality, a vehicle’s consumption and CO2 emissions depend on a multitude of factors that cannot be perfectly reconstructed in the laboratory, even with the WLTP. Different driving styles represent a central factor here. If two drivers move identical vehicles in identical conditions in real traffic, the values are bound to differ due to individual acceleration and braking behaviour, for example. With the WLTP, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption will likely be higher because the new test procedure simulates a wider range of realistic driving profiles.
Real Driving Emissions (RDE)
In addition to WLTP, new regulations for Real Driving Emissions (RDE (I)) came into effect on 1 September 2017 for all newly type approved passenger car models in Europe. RDE measures emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and number of particles (PN) in real traffic and environmental conditions. The legal regulation RDE does not replace WLTP but complements it. While WLTP is a dynamometer test, RDE is a measurement method under real driving conditions.
Test procedure and statutory thresholds
RDE is a realtime test. The test cycle contains varying routes covering a range of 90 to 120 minutes of driving. The Portable Emission Measuring System (PEMS) measures pollutant emissions and simultaneously records the related vehicle parameters and environ mental conditions such as GPS location, velocity and differences in altitude and temperature.
The route comprises three sections: urban (approx. 34% of total distance), countryside (approx. 33%) and motorway (approx. 33%). The vehicle must remain at an altitude of between zero and 700 meters above sea level. Ambient temperature must be between +3°C and +30°C.
|Temperature||14°C bis 23°C||3°C bis 30°C
Normal test conditions
|Weight||Unladen vehicle + driver + 15% cargo load||Up to 90% cargo load|
|Duration||30 minutes||90 to 120 minutes|
|Route||Definied cycle||Arbitrary route (urban, countryside and motorway) within the test conditions|
The implementation of RDE is a two-step process:
- RDE (I): From September 2019: mandatory for all newly registeredpassenger car models NOX emissions may exceed by max. 2.1 times (conformity factor (CF)) the measured value according to NEDC respectively WLTP.
- RDE (II): From 1 January 2020, mandatory for all newly type-approvedpassenger car models NOX emissions may equally amount to the NOX value measured on a dynamometer (taking into account a measuring tolerance of 0.5 = maximum amount 1.5) Starting in 1 January 2021 it is getting mandatory for all newly registered vehicles.
For all newly registered vehicles from 1 September 2018, the number of particles measured on the real driving test may not exceed the value quantified under the dynamometer test (taking into account a measuring tolerance of 0.5 = maximum amount 1.5).
The EURO Norm 6
The emission standard EURO 6 is a regulation of the European Union that determines maximum values of different emissions that manufacturers must fulfil within the vehicle type approval. The emission standard is named with the word EURO followed by a number describing the standard’s generation.
The emission indication EURO 6 describes the emission standard and the threshold to be fulfilled. Additionally, it indicates the test procedure to be used. Since 1 September 2015, all new vehicles have had to fulfil the EURO 6 threshold values for nitrogen oxide and particle emissions. Additional capital letters indicate further measurement methods. With the implementation of WLTP, the emission labelling EURO 6Ax has been established. Since EURO 6d Temp. (temporary until the end of 2020) came into effect, WLTP values and thresholds for the real driving test (RDE) on the road are mandatory. The nitrogen oxide value measured in the RDE test may exceed the measured value under WLTP by max. 2.1 times. The conformity factor will be decreased to 1.0 taking into account a measuring tolerance of 0.5 with implementation of EURO 6d standard, which comes into effect in 2020.
For the EURO 6d standard, this means that, effectively, the NOX value measured under real-driving conditions is a maximum of 1.5 times higher than the value measured under WLTP.
|Emissions labelling EU 6 (in extracts)
||EU 6AD ***||EURO 6 DG||EURO 6 AP-ISC-FCM
|Type approvals as of||01.09.2014||**||*||01.09.2017||01.01.2020|
|Transition period for new vehicles already type-approved||01.09.2015||**||01.09.2018||01.09.2019||01.01.2021|
|Emission standard||EURO 6b||EURO 6c||EURO 6c
||WLTP + RDE||WLTP + RDE||WLTP + RDE|
* Not intended für type approval.
*** Not subject to implementation effective date. It can be operated voluntarily.
*** The particle number of the dynamometer test is also valid für the on-road test
(taking into account a dimensional tolerance of 0.5 = max. value 1.5), including the monitoring of NOx.
To whom is the WLTP relevant?
The WLTP is a legally binding test procedure that applies to all manufacturers. The new test procedure will account for conventional combustion engines as well as hybrid and electric vehicles.
To what extent will the WLTP influence my vehicle configuration?
So far the NEDC has been a decisive factor when determining consumption and CO2 values as well as vehicles ranges. In the new WLTP test procedure, measurements are performed while taking into account the equipment weight, vehicle aerodynamics, rims and tyre rolling resistance and engine-gear box combination. That is why vehicles will feature individual CO2 emission and consumption figures. As a result, the consumer will be able to influence both price and CO2 emissions of a configured vehicle in future.
Test results will be higher after the WLTP procedure. What does that mean?
The general rule is: individual customer consumption is independent from the test cycle. The aim of the test procedure is to ensure by means of a standardised and reproducible process that different vehicle models and manufacturers can be compared. In reality, a vehicle’s consumption and CO2 emissions depend on a multitude of factors that cannot be perfectly reconstructed in the laboratory, even with the WLTP. Different driving styles represent a key factor here. When two drivers move identical vehicles in identical conditions in real traffic, the values are bound to differ due to individual acceleration and braking behaviour, for example. With the WLTP, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption will likely be higher because the new test procedure simulates a wider range of realistic driving profiles.
Downloads & Links
WLTP Mandatory Measures 2019 Evaporative Emission (EVAP) download PDF WLTP for fleet How the new test procedure affects the fleet business download PDF WLTP and RDE Insights Current test procedures and their implications for fleet customers download PDF A New Standard An overview of WLTP for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles